Measurement Methods

Fly ash contents can be considered as a basis for optimal and stable boiler combustion control and ‎fly ash quality control in power plants, especially the unburned carbon in fly ash. Various methods ‎are used in predicting and monitoring of U.B.C. including:‎


Ash that is stored or deposited outside can ultimately drain toxic compounds into underground ‎water aquifers. So specially lined landfills that prevent the chemical compounds are introduced to ‎prevent from being leached into the groundwater and local

Loss on ignition (L.O.I.)‎

It is the most common laboratory analysis method for U.B.C. estimation in power plants. However, it is complicated to apply for online measurement and influenced by the presence of sulphur.

Laser-Induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) ‎

The laser is inherently discrete, and it will be caused to reduce accuracy. The approach needs to use ‎a laser generator in Nano sec. Scale and plasma. In practice, we are not able to do emission signals ‎of laser

Total Organic Carbon (T.O.C.)‎

The sample is evacuated and subsequently incinerated with pure oxygen.   However, it is ‎complicated and has limited reliability and can be costly. The water purity requirements are ‎extremely stringent.

InfraRed reflectance

The sample is taken from the procedure and shown to infrared light. The reflectance is a gauge for ‎the unburnt carbon content. However, it is complicated to apply for online measurement due to ‎sample extraction, piping, and clogging problems, and it is dirt sensitive.


The sample is burned to measure the weight loss for L.O.I. Content or the Co2 emission. It is ‎complicated. It involves many steps and automation hardware. The maintenance requirements ‎make the method costly and unaffordable


It is a simple and reliable method. However, Fly ash and U.B.C. have different responses when ‎subject to microwave radiation. Proximity to the resonator to the ash is important as to get the ash ‎into the sensor or resonance chamber, and to make it work.  Online measurement will be ‎complicated. ‎

Online U.B.C. monitoring: Companies offer these services currently. However, it is a reactive ‎approach and does not serve the purpose of proactively managing the U.B.C. levels. ‎

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *